This line is fundamental for the overall consistency of the Territorial Intelligence team's work since it makes it possible to validate the conceptual and methodological propositions put forward while prompting new questions so as to make the solutions implemented operational.

Based on targeted issues often emanating from our traditional partners (local authorities, government services and associations especially), the 'Practices and Territories – Research-Action' area is designed, via the various functions represented by uses of the territory, their development and their management, to implement Territorial Intelligence concepts.

Evaluating the effectiveness of tools for territorial observation and analysis
The question that interests us here is that of the change in governance by decision-support tools. This hypothesis is not yet verified and the implementation of a number of suitable and now permanent decision-support tools prompts us to try to understand the mechanisms. We propose (1) to define the methods for analysing composite indicators produced by our tools and indicative of the quality of inter-partner collaboration and (2) to systematically observe to what degree regional planning decision-makers integrate certain knowledge from decision-support tools (e.g. by referring to the findings reached) and whether they change their decision-making practices as a consequence.

Applying Territorial Intelligence concepts, methods and tools to the issue of energy transition
The domain of energy is a research field that remains compartmentalised and interconnections among competencies, knowledge and technical, economic, environmental and societal achievements are still few and far between. Awareness of the importance of territorial action in this area is 'shifting boundaries' and ever more projects are including approaches from the hard sciences and human sciences (see the ambitions and work of the LIED
We propose therefore in taking up this complex theme but with very high societal expectations to highlight the value of informational 'transparency' required for implementing composite territorial energy indicators and the power of collective approaches to constructing territorial knowledge tools. This research work is the subject of prospective action by GDR MAGIS and of funding applications (ANR ETTIC pre-project, TELEM project).

Cooperative and participatory observations
The Catalyse method provides numerous examples (91 experiments in Europe) of observatories developed for multi-sector development partners acting for sustainable development and socio-ecological transition. Studies have been undertaken within the European Network of Territorial Intelligence to introduce awareness of governance into these monitoring and evaluation tools.

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