Projects Landscape and living environment

Landscape and Living Environment

The activities of the 'Landscape and Living Environment' team are based on a well-established research specialism around the object of 'landscape', addressed essentially from the angle of instrumented and quantitative approaches. Growing social demand for quality of the environment and of the living environment can be used to integrate the work of the team in many research contexts and to enhance its contribution in multidisciplinary work.

See the 'Autour du paysage' pdf and its abridged version in the encyclopaedia of geography Hypergeo.

  poster equipe paysage

 

 

 

Last Updated: Thursday, 13 November 2014 09:01

Landscape and Living Environment / Scientific Objectives

Research positioning

Landscape is both a term in everyday language and a key concept in geography that has long been studied by geographers in Besançon. Because of its complexity and its multiple meanings, this object has elicited many approaches. The one we give precedence to is part of a quantitative geography outlook based on original concepts and underpinned by reproducible methods of analysis. From it emanates a recognised know-how which, through applied research, has made it possible to develop special-purpose tools. This approach makes it possible to include both physical features and sensitive aspects of landscape.

This conceptual and methodological positioning requires:2012-Saint-Dié

  • standardised procedures for data acquisition: field sampling, in-situ sensing, remote sensing;
  • landscape metrics to express precise characters: functional indicators, criteria related to a landscape representation (wide or confined view), for example;
  • integration of these metrics in a formal framework of analysis using, say, statistical or mathematical modelling.

 

Purposes

To contribute to a clearer representation of the landscape that may be taken up and generalised to lead to practical solutions that can be used in environmental management from a perspective of sustainable development.

Last Updated: Thursday, 11 December 2014 10:29

Landscape and Living Environment / Landscape Resources and Amenities

As a feature of the living environment, landscape is apprehended here as an interface between individuals and the spaces that they frequent and perceive. As such, landscape is addressed via several research fields:

 

Modelling of spatial forms (land use, topography) and the visible landscape

This line of research is part of the general framework of studies of land-cover and land-use change (LC-LUC) and extends it to landscape dynamics induced by land-use changes. Three directions are given precedence: problems raised by observations on multiple scales; the unequal carry over of land-use changes in changes in the visible landscape; the use of output from urban growth simulation models (cf. work by ThéMA's Mobility, Cities and Transport team) as input for landscape 'prospectives'. This work has given rise to a study of Ile-de-France fringes (franges franciliennes) for the MIATT of the Paris Basin and a typology of rural spaces (espaces ruraux) for the DATAR by the consortium of UMR CESAER, ThéMA, DTM and METAFORT.

 

The role of landscape considered as one of the amenities affecting residential location choices

poster prix paysageThis research is conducted in conjunction with UMR CESEAR of the INRA Dijon. The amenities provided by a pleasant landscape are residential choice factors whose impact on territories should be evaluated. By matching land market data and landscape attributes of properties bought and sold, the hedonic price econometric method reveals the specific influence of these attributes on transaction prices. In parallel a complementary study (Samy Youssoufi's PhD thesis) has been conducted on landscape amenities as stated by households. One of the important aspects of this work was identifying the most relevant spatial indicators for representing landscape quality in households' living environments. This research has been extended to analysis of the economic value of climate, especially by a project for economic modelling of heliotropism as it affects the land market.

 

The integration of landscape in the territorial dimension via the question of landscape mediatisation.

2008 Gembloux How is landscape called on to bring out a joint project shared within a territory? What landscape information and communication media are used in mediation operations and participatory debate and with what results or what obstacles? The question of the mediatisation of landscape is a corollary to the question of its mediation. The research bears on the discourse and iconography produced by territorial actors. Similarly, the mediatisation of landscapes via postcards was the subject of a PhD thesis defended by the Laboratory'sr Jean-Baptiste Litot in January 2010.

Last Updated: Thursday, 13 November 2014 14:04

Landscape and Living Environment / Landscape and Ecological Networks

For several years experiments conducted in landscape ecology have enabled the team to develop methodological skills in the use of landscape metrics. This work, which has focused more especially on the ideas of connectivity and landscape distance, is behind a recent methodological positioning on the characterisation of functional connectivity by landscape graphs. These methods can be used to model functional aspects and may give rise to transfer towards the professional environment concerned by the question of networks (ecological corridors). They are applied to address certain phenomena of biological diffusion and to study the ecological impacts of the conversion of natural landscapes.

 

Ecological consequences of the conversion of natural landscapes

In the context of the densification of transport networks and of urban sprawl, an important question is the evaluation of negative externalities 2012 GDR MAGISécaused by the conversion of natural landscapes on the habitat of certain animal species, in particular on their functional connectivity. A first line of research concerns the impact of major transport infrastructures on the connectivity of wildlife habitats (Graphab 1 and Graphab 2). A second line of enquiry, in conjunction with the Mobility, Cities and Transport team, aims to compare the modification of ecological networks as a function of the different forms of urban sprawl.

 

Landscape networks and biological diffusion phenomena

In the fight against biological diffusion phenomena (e.g. animal population explosions, parasite transmission) landscape analysis can provide an interesting contribution when the vectors of diffusion depend on certain landscape elements. The identification of 2012 CAMPAGRAPHEpropagation networks is an important issue. The purpose is to apply landscape graph methods to the modelling of connectivity and to improve knowledge of the ways in which these phenomena spread. One of the main outcomes expected is the precise identification of diffusion channels and spatial configuration brought about by barrier effects. This knowledge will guide decision makers in introducing landscape developments that might limit the phenomena of biological diffusion in question. The works is conducted in conjunction with UMR 6249 Chrono-Environnement as part of the Campagraphe programme.

Last Updated: Thursday, 22 January 2015 09:32