François Sémécurbe is denfending his PhD thesis : Analysis of the spatial distribution of human settlements : Contributions and limitations of multi-scale and trans-scale indicators

 

The defense will take place in Besançon at the University of Franche-Comté at Salon Préclin, UFR SLHS on september 25th at 2 pm.

 

This work was directed by Cécile Tannier, Senior researcher at CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research).

 

Defense jury

Elsa Arcaute - Associate professor, CASA, University College London
Giovanni Fusco - Associate researcher "HDR" at CNRS, laboratory ESPACE, Nice
Didier Josselin - Director of Research CNRS, laboratory ESPACE, Avignon
Julien Perret - Director of Research LASTIG, Paris
Pierre Frankhauser - Emeritus Professor at the University of Franche-Comté, laboratory ThéMA
Stéphane Roux - Lecturer – HDR, ENS de Lyon, laboratory of physics

 

Abstract

As human beings, it is easy for us to judge visually whether a distribution is dispersed or concentrated. However, the quantitative formalization of our impressions is problematic. It depends on the scales of the chosen analysis. This dependence of indicators on scales has changed. It is initially considered as a barrier to knowledge, it now reflects the multi-scale organisation of the distributions studied. The central objective of this thesis is to investigate the limits and contribution of multi-scale and trans-scale indicators to the study of the spatial distributions of human settlements. Spatial analysis aims at comparing spatial distributions to a uniform distribution. The way in which spatial distributions move away from this reference is used to characterize the multi-scale organization of the analyzed distributions. The application of these methods to human settlements has not been satisfactory. The use of an exogenous reference is not adapted to distributions that are very unevenly concentrated in space. Fractal analysis used in urban geography considers that the analysed distributions are their own measurement standard. Fractal dimensions measure how the space occupied by them evolves across scales. This type of analysis requires a regularity between scales, the invariance of scale whose existence is not verified on all territories. Trans-scale analysis generalises the principles of fractal analysis to all distributions and makes it possible to characterise the unequal concentration of human settlements in rural and urban territories.

 
 

 

Last Updated: Friday, 11 September 2020 09:01

Jean Houssemand is defending his PhD thesis : Conceptualization and evaluation of a typology of vertical housing concept for sustainable urban planning

 

The defense will take place in Dijon at the University of Burgundia at the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Salle des Thèses (6 Esplanade Erasme), on february 14th at 14pm.

 

This work was directed by Jean-Philippe Antoni, Professor at the University of Burgundy, laboratory ThéMA.

 

Defense jury

Denis Bocquet, Professor at the National School of Architecture of Strasbourg

Éric Charmes, Director of Research at the Laboratory for interdisciplinary research on cities, spaces and society (EVS RIVES), Graduate School of Civil, Environmental and Urban Engineering, Vaulx-en-Velin

Pierre Frankhauser, Emeritus Professor at the University of Franche-Comté

Hélène Haniotou, Professor at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece

 

Abstract

Context. The current urban development process is the result of a paradoxical situation. On the one end, families prefer individual housing, which finds the favourable conditions to its spreading in the more or less distant from towns outskirts, while wishing to benefit from services (proximity to amenities, public transport offers, etc.) which are rather the corelate of dense urban centralization. On the other hand, in order to fight against environmental, social and economic costs of urban sprawl, and also aim towards a more sustainable city, the urban renovation and compact city projects lead to some density levels that only collective housing enables to reach.

Problematic. So, the equation « control of the urban sprawl, satisfaction of the house request and sustainable city » seems to be unsolvable, especially due to the lack of a housing offer being able to combine the particularities of the detached house and the needs of urban density. Two relatively separate tandems « housing / territory and induced mobility » result from it : individual housing, which is dependent on cars, is mainly situated in peri-urban areas, whereas collective housing, which is not approved by most families, gather in the town centers with many alternatives to cars. In such a context, through the main concept of « vertical housing development », this doctoral research work arises the hypothesis that the enlargement of the prism of the mobilities and urban areas analysis should enable the emergency of new solutions, which will include the housing and territories specifications in a multidisciplinary and multiscale way.

Methodology. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the methodology hinges on two steps. First, a review of the architectural literature allowed to define the « vertical housing concept » as an innovative answer to the equation which is insolvable nowadays : indeed, the history of architecture informs us profusely on the opportunities of a vertical urbanism unexploited until now ; this enables the creation of hanging artificial grounds to build in floors detached houses. In second place, the state of the art allowed to identify the main determinants of housing attractiveness while confronting the two classical tandems (individual/collective) to the concept of « vertical housing development » and suggests a theoretical model adaptable to different cases. Validation. The model has been evaluated three times. Firstly, the information gathered during a photo-elicitation inquiry allow to validate the architectural choices a posteriori and make sure of their suitability in terms of residential preferences (social validation). Secondly, a legal evaluation shows that a development of the current regulatory measures is indeed partially necessary to the operational development of the model, but the latter can nevertheless quickly fulfill the demand while fighting against urban sprawl. Thirdly, a geographical evaluation which compares the deployment of the model with the reality of available grounds and the localization of amenities and transport infrastructure, shows that it would concretely allow to densify the town and its outskirts according to a logic close to the Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Results. Three major results arise from this evaluation. Indeed, the « vertical housing development » concept seems (i) to match with the residential choices from a significant part of the French families, (ii) to be immediately authorized and managed by the current legal and regulatory framework, (iii) to benefit from a consequent potential of development at the level of the Strasbourg-Eurometropolis which serves as an example to this thesis. Moreover, at a time when multidisciplinary and multiscale approaches are questioned, this thesis work, which links an architectural approach at the housing level and a geographical approach at the city level, gives a specific example of new types of housing formalization, based on the original principle of a decoupling between « housing types » and « territories ».

 

Keywords : Housing types, Housing concept, Urban form, Urban renewal, Compact city, Sustainable city, Evaluation, Modelization, Multidisciplinarity, Multiscalarity

Housemand ill thèse 


 

 

Last Updated: Monday, 03 February 2020 10:24

Seydou Ba is defending his PhD thesis : The issue of viability and socio-economic development in institutional territories facing administrative divisions in Senegal

 

The defense will take place in Besançon at the Salon Preclin, UFR SLHS on decembre 16th at 10am.

This work was directed by Alexandre Moine, Professor at the University of Franche-Comté, laboratory ThéMA.

 

Defense jury

Frédéric Giraut, Professor at the University of Geneva, Switzerland

Jean-Christophe Gay, Professor at the University of Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France

Stéphanie Lima, Lecturer at the INU Champollion, Albi, France

Abdourahmane Sene, Lecturer at the University of Assane Seck de Ziguinchor and Director of spatial planning of the Ministery of « Gouvernance territoriale, du Développement et de l’Aménagement du Territoire », Senegal

Christian Guinchard, Lecturer – HDR at the University of Franche-Comté, France

Abstract

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the process of construction and delimitation of communal territories in Senegal. Indeed, in Senegal, the communes constitute the basic territorial collectivities. They have legal personality and financial autonomy. They are created by decree, which must be concretely translated into a territorial division.

During the first years of 2000, the steady pace of administrative divisions led to a rapid change in the territorial organization and in parallel to the number of territorialized actors. This dynamic of recomposition then provoked a lively debate on the underpinnings of the divisions and the relevance of the territorial entities. This situation is all the more worrying as a number of conflicts between local and regional authorities have become widespread.

However, the creation of new territories in Senegal is very rarely accompanied by a materialization of their spatial limits. This phenomenon creates a great deal of uncertainty around the boundary and causes various conflicts that hinder the management and development of communities whose physical territory remains more or less poorly known.

It is in this context that we are interested in the process of administrative divisions to understand how territorial boundaries are defined and set up? What roles do they play in the management, ownership, cohesion and development of the territories they contribute to create and of which they constitute a determining component? What is the real existence of these territories? What do they represent for the actors? It is to these concerns that this thesis has tried to answer, through the example of 5 communes in the Saint-Louis region.

This research was conducted on the basis of a systemic approach, the conduct of semi-structured interviews and the use of mind maps. The goal is to analyze and understand the complex process of building boundaries and territories.

For data processing and analysis, we used a method of empirical analysis of content in order to understand the different spatial reference scales of the actors; the process of creating municipalities; the actors involved and their roles; finally, their level of appropriation of the communal territories.

 

Ba_découpage_sénégal 

 

Last Updated: Monday, 03 February 2020 08:42
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