When new lifestyles disrupt daily mobility in England

 

By exploring data relating to England from the UK National Travel Survey between 2002 and 2017, this research led by Benjamin Motte-Baumvol was able to refine the analysis of daily mobility usually carried out in France (where surveys are based on one “typical day”) by considering the variability of travel over a whole week, which reflects our increasingly fragmented lives more authentically.

Thanks to new “remote” practices enabled by the development of telework and online shopping, we can perform our activities in a greater variety of locations and many trips that were previously necessary are now avoidable. But the organization of our everyday life is becoming more complex and these trends are seemingly leading us to perform more and more carbon-emitting trips.

The purpose of this research is to understand how current evolutions in the lifestyles and working conditions of workers are causing adaptations in daily travel and its coordination within the household. Three dimensions of people’s lifestyles were studied: the influence of the workplace and of teleworking on travel, the effects of online shopping, and finally the determinants of taking children to their activities among dual-income families. The analysis of quantitative data allows us to describe these practices, to understand whether there are interactions between these different activities and see if they make it possible, as one might think regarding digital tools, to reduce travel and associated CO2 emissions.

Enquete graphique eng

 

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Thibaut Vairet is denfending his PhD thesis : Sensitivity of a climate model to urban form. Application on Dijon Métropole

 

The defense will take place in Dijon at the University of Burgundy on december 14th

 photo Vairet Thibaut 1

This work was directed by Thomas Thevenin, Associate researcher "HDR" ThéMA and Yves Richard, Associate researcher "HDR", Biogéoscience-CRC.

The defense can be followed online by : http://desktop.visio.renater.fr/scopia?ID=727610***8300&autojoin

Code d'accès : 8300 (terminer par #)

 

Defense jury

Houet Thomas, Director of Research "HDR" CNRS, LETG, Rennes

Masson Valéry,  Director of Research HDR, GMME/VILLE, CNRM, Toulouse

Cantat Olivier, Associate researcher, LETG, Caen

Ruas Anne, research ingenior "HDR", IFFSTAR, Marne-la-Vallée

Sanders Léna, Director of research "HDR" CNRS,Géographie-Cité, Paris 1

 

Abstract

The urban environment is at the crossroads of two complex systems with different temporalities : climate and society. The urban climate is a modification of the climate caused by the presence of a city. The most successful expression of this climate change by the presence of the city is the phenomenon of Urban Heat Island (UHI). In a global context of adaptation and mitigation to climate change and urban development, this phenomenon of ICU tends to increase, and its health impacts on populations to become more prominent. This work is aimed at improving the knowledge of the impact of urban form and urban development on the intensity of the UCI through the implementation of a decision support tool allowing to integrate urban climate into decision-making processes. To do this, a “ model-dependent ” approach has been adopted. Five urban growth scenarios are based on the same number of housing but correspond to different Local Climate Zones (Grouped individual housing - LCZ 9, Individual group housing - LCZ 6, Low density collective - LCZ 3, Collective - LCZ 2, Dense collective - LCZ 4). These are developed by 2050, based on input data from growth models (MUP-City) and urban climate (Meso-NH / TEB). In order to assess the ability of Meso-NH / TEB to reproduce temperatures in Dijon Métropole, a control simulation, relating to the current city, is previously compared with data from the MUSTARDijon network for the heat wave period from 22 to 26 July 2018. A comparison of the results with the MUSTARDijon textit in situ network shows that the simulated temperatures are spatially and temporally consistent with the observations. The diurnal cycle is correctly modeled as well as urban and rural environments. A significant bias is present at nights in rural areas where temperatures remain high, limiting the intensity of the simulated UI. Compared to the control simulation, for the days (12LT to 18LT), the scenario with LCZs 3 and 2 present warmer temperatures than the scenario with LCZs 9 and 6. The scenarios for which the building percentage is the smallest has the smallest temperature increases. Finally, it would seem that building, whatever the urban form, on the outskirts of already defined built-up areas, has little impact on their temperature.

 

François Sémécurbe is denfending his PhD thesis : Analysis of the spatial distribution of human settlements : Contributions and limitations of multi-scale and trans-scale indicators

 

The defense will take place in Besançon at the University of Franche-Comté at Salon Préclin, UFR SLHS on september 25th at 2 pm.

 

This work was directed by Cécile Tannier, Senior researcher at CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research).

 

Defense jury

Elsa Arcaute - Associate professor, CASA, University College London
Giovanni Fusco - Associate researcher "HDR" at CNRS, laboratory ESPACE, Nice
Didier Josselin - Director of Research CNRS, laboratory ESPACE, Avignon
Julien Perret - Director of Research LASTIG, Paris
Pierre Frankhauser - Emeritus Professor at the University of Franche-Comté, laboratory ThéMA
Stéphane Roux - Lecturer – HDR, ENS de Lyon, laboratory of physics

 

Abstract

As human beings, it is easy for us to judge visually whether a distribution is dispersed or concentrated. However, the quantitative formalization of our impressions is problematic. It depends on the scales of the chosen analysis. This dependence of indicators on scales has changed. It is initially considered as a barrier to knowledge, it now reflects the multi-scale organisation of the distributions studied. The central objective of this thesis is to investigate the limits and contribution of multi-scale and trans-scale indicators to the study of the spatial distributions of human settlements. Spatial analysis aims at comparing spatial distributions to a uniform distribution. The way in which spatial distributions move away from this reference is used to characterize the multi-scale organization of the analyzed distributions. The application of these methods to human settlements has not been satisfactory. The use of an exogenous reference is not adapted to distributions that are very unevenly concentrated in space. Fractal analysis used in urban geography considers that the analysed distributions are their own measurement standard. Fractal dimensions measure how the space occupied by them evolves across scales. This type of analysis requires a regularity between scales, the invariance of scale whose existence is not verified on all territories. Trans-scale analysis generalises the principles of fractal analysis to all distributions and makes it possible to characterise the unequal concentration of human settlements in rural and urban territories.

 
 

 

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